Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus as follows: “This is the only way, O bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the Four Arousings of Mindfulness.”


“What are the four?

“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful (of it), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful (of them), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful (of it), having overcome in this world covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful (of them), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief.”

From: the foundations of observance, Satipaṭṭhāna Sutra. Pali Canon.


The term “Bhavana” means: development, cultivating, getting used to. In the Western countries this is translated as: meditation. It is always connected with the development of the mind, feelings, body, appearances.

That should also be the best motivation to meditate: as a counteract in case we experience certain dissatisfaction or disturbing thoughts and feelings. If this were not the case, meditation would be a pleasant relaxation for a short period of time, a form of wellness, in order to be able to escape everyday problems.

Through meditation one can change the mind and free it from unrest, worries, disturbances, and dissatisfaction. Sustainable meditation leads to a change process and to sustainable, inner peace and stability.


For concentration meditation one needs the motivation to want to change the mind. And the belief that meditation can have a beneficial effect, in addition to perseverance and concentration. You cannot meditate without concentration skills. Through concentration, everything that arises and distracts in the mind is clearly seen and removed. As a result, the mind becomes calm and stabilizes because we have it under control. Normally we do not have this control; this makes us dependent and creates a daily mental unrest. In concentration meditation, also called Samatha, powerful, one-pointed concentration is developed. Mainly on the four foundations of mindfulness: reflection on the body, on the feelings, on the consciousness and reflection on phenomena that arise in the mind.


A second form of meditation is the insight meditation, sometimes called healing meditation. In Buddhism, this meditation means the insight into the three characteristics of existence: transience, suffering and non-self. The practice of unfolding this insight consists of meditation and study of Buddhist philosophy. This is a way to overcome the suffering caused by “not seeing” these three characteristics of existence. Finally, the goal of insight is: liberating, deep understanding of the four noble truths: the causes of suffering and the liberation of suffering. In the meditative insight we can experience the pure nature of the mind, which is free from any negativity.


A third form of meditation is that of friendship, kindness (Metta). Friendship meditation is a very old form of meditation that helps the practitioner to develop an attitude of friendship and true goodness towards oneself and others. Metta meditation has a deep healing influence on suffering.